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Definition and function of insulin

Definition and Function of Insulin?

Definition and functions of insulin
definition and functions of insulin

                                    Definition of Insulin

What is insulin? From which organ is insulin released? Is insulin released independently from the pituitary? What kind of mechanism is insulin released? Which functions does insulin have in our body? How does insulin work? What is the reason for insulin release?


Insulin is one of the important hormones in our body. It is an anabolic hormone that is composed of a protein-peptide structure. It is released from the pancreas beta-cell. It regulates fat-protein-sugar metabolism in our bodies. It prevents hyperglycemia by reducing blood sugar to a normal level.


          Where is Insulin Released from?

Insulin works independently from the pituitary gland, which controls the release of most of our hormones. As a result of the action potential formed in the pancreas beta cell, depending on the amount of glucose in the blood, it is given to the blood in the form of vesicles by exocytosis.

Definition and functions of insulin
relationship between insulin and sugar


                    How is Insulin Released?

So, how is insulin released? Before the nutrients which we eat enter the blood, some enteroendocrine cells (glucose-sensitive) in the intestine begin to secrete insulin. As the absorbed glucose and other nutrients increase in the blood, pancreatic beta cells are stimulated and then secrete insulin much more. 

However, there is an important point here. It is not just sensitive to glucose, it is also sensitive to proteins and fats. However, insulin has a high sensitivity for only glucose. Protein and fatty acid have less effect on pancreatic beta cells.

                               The function of Insulin?

Insulin which is released into the blood allows the nutrients to enter the tissues such as adipose, muscle, and liver tissue. Insulin provides nutrition to the tissues by acting on the insulin receptors. The amino acids are taken into the muscle tissue then they are converted into protein. this process is called: protein synthesis and thus insulin helps to build muscle. 

Excess glucose that enters the liver and muscle tissue is converted into glycogen and stored(glycogenesis). Excess glucose and nutrients are converted to fat in adipose tissue(lipogenesis). In short, this hormone released from the pancreas behind the stomach provides the nutrients we eat to be taken to the tissue.

Definition and functions of insulin
insulin syringe

                               Why is Insulin Released

Insulin is released to reduce blood sugar and prevents hyperglycemia. It is also very important for nutrition to enter the tissue. Therefore, in Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, inability to feed the tissue will happen and this problem will lead to bad consequences 'such as gangrene' in the future.

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