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Stress hormone cortisol

Stress hormone cortisol
stress hormone cortisol


Hello, in this article I will tell you about stress hormone cortisol.
As a result of all the negative events we experience during the day, the feeling of stress initiates some biochemical events in our bodies. The first of these is the cortisol hormone released under the influence of stress.


    Definition of stress hormone cortisol


Stress hormone cortisol is a steroid hormone released from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It is released in response to stress and raises blood sugar. Stress hormone cortisol has a diurnal cycle, so its level is low in the evening and high in the morning.

When the stress begins to show its effect, the corticotropin-releasing hormone is released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The corticotropin-releasing hormone, which passes to the pituitary via the hypothalamohypophysial portal system, affects the corticotrope in the adenohypophysis, and corticotrope releases adrenocorticotropic hormone.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone helps the release of stress hormone cortisol by stimulating the adrenal cortex. Stress hormone cortisol is ready to make some very important changes in the body. These are changes that can be of vital importance. So what are the effects of stress hormone cortisol?


Changes in the cardiovascular system


The sympathetic nervous system, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system, works with fight or flight response. It works in short-term stress situations such as fear, stress, and thrill. The most important hormone group of this system is called catecholamines. Catecholamines are composed of epinephrine and norepinephrine. 


Stress hormone cortisol increases the sensitivity of these hormones in the body and causes peripheral vasoconstriction. More blood comes to the heart per unit of time. Thus, blood pressure increases. Hypertension is seen in patients with high stress hormone cortisol due to the increase in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure


 Changes in bone and collagen


Stress hormone cortisol causes proteolysis by increasing the destruction of collagen. The amino acids formed are converted into glucose in the liver. This transformation is called gluconeogenesis. Excessive destruction of collagen accelerates aging.


It can lead to bone resorption by reducing the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestines and increasing the destruction of type 1 collagen, which plays a role in bone formation. A sustained high level of stress hormone cortisol causes osteoporosis.


  Changes in kidney and stomach


Stress hormone cortisol increases the absorption of sodium chloride and water in the kidney tubules while increasing the excretion of hydrogen ions and potassium. This situation also increases blood pressure. Thus, edema and swelling are seen in the bodies of patients with the high stress hormone cortisol. Also, by increasing gastric acid secretion in the stomach.

 Changes in inflammation


Stress hormone cortisol suppresses inflammation and leads to a decrease in the production of cells involved in body defense. Stress hormone cortisol can be used as a treatment for autoimmune and allergic diseases.

    Changes in muscle and fat tissue



Stress hormone cortisol works to reduce insulin sensitivity by preventing glucose from entering fat and muscle tissue. It breaks down proteins in muscle tissue (proteolysis) and the amino acids formed undergo gluconeogenesis to turn into glucose in the liver.


If short-term stress dominates the body, fats are destroyed. The fat monomers formed are converted into glucose in the liver and increase blood sugar. If long-term stress dominates the body, blood sugar will constantly rise and insulin hormone will be secreted and contribute to lipogenesis. As a result of the release of insulin, there will be lubrication in the axial region of the body.

   Changes in liver metabolism


Stress hormone cortisol directly provides the storage of glucose monomers as glycogen (glycogenesis) in the liver, while it indirectly takes part in the destruction of glycogens in the liver (glycogenolysis) by increasing the sensitivity of epinephrine and norepinephrine.



If you want to read our previous article, you can click the link


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